Resources for Practitioners

This link will allow you to download an Excel Workbook I share with my students to assist in the quantitative analysis of single-case designs.  The workbook can accommodate designs as complicated as ABAB, which is sufficient for most "response-to-intervention" scenarios, for either trend (i.e., regression) or levels (i.e., effect size) analyses.  The Workbook was originally desgined in Microsoft Excel 2013 for Windows, so users with older/newer versions of the software or other operating systems may experience some compatibility issues (although my students have found that this is rare).

Please note that the Excel Workbook uses macros.  You will need to enable the macros in order to use all of the features.

Here is R markdown code for analyzing AB single-subject data sets. Open the Word doc and copy all the contents into a new R markdown file (.rmd file). You will also need to install the following two free packages in R, if you do not already have them:

 

SSDforR
ggplot2

 

To use it, all you have to do is enter your data on line 11. You also have to identify how many data were collected in Phase A (baseline) on line 13, and how many data were collected in Phase B (intervention) on line 14. Then click "Knit Word." The result is a 15-page report of several of the traditional single-subject analyses with brief explanations and interpretation concerns.

R Markdown Code for Traditional Single Case Analyses (AB Design)

Here is a separate R markdown code to run the Bayesian single-case analysis for AB designs created by de Vries and Morey (2013). The advantage here is that, unlike traditional estimates of single-case outcomes, the Bayesian analysis can handle missing data -- if there were missed days or weeks in your planned data collection schedule, you can simply enter those occasions as NA in the relevant data line. The Bayes Factors also allow principled inferences, even in the case of small datasets. To use it, follow the instructions above for copying the content of this file into a new markdown file (.rmd file).

 

You will need to install the following packages in R, if you do not already have them:

SSDforR
ggplot2
BayesSingleSub
mcmcplots

R Markdown Code for Bayesian Single Case Analyses (AB Design)

Useful Websites

The "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC) is maintained by the Institute for Education Sciences and is a solid resource for evidence-based practices. The WWC reviews the relevant literature and rates different interventions and programs based on the strength of the supporting research. Moreover, they provide a lot of online training and resources to support high-quality research standards, which can be helpful if/when you plan school-based research.

The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is maintained by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and provides a searchable database of mental health programs that have been reviewed for quality and relevance. NREPP is not specific to schools, but the search features allows you to filter those programs that have been tested in schools, and specifically with the age groups you are targeting. Similar to the WWC above, NREPP does not directly provide intervention instructions or materials, but you can easily find the articles that support those interventions.

The EBI Network is maintained by the school psychology program at Missouri and offers several evidence-based intervention ideas based on presenting problems. The "intervention briefs" vary in their helpfulness, but with a little research you can track down the information and resources needed for implementation.

The Center for School Mental Health (CSMH) offers several good resources for school-based practitioners, including resources on crisis response planning and youth suicide prevention. Some of the other resources on this website can be helpful.

SchoolMentalHealth.org is managed by the The University of Maryland's Center for School Mental Health (see above). The resources provided on this page are a little disorganized, but there are treatment manuals and assessment materials that can prove useful for practitioners. 

Intervention Central is maintained by Jim Wright, a school psychologist who has been collecting and documenting school interventions for years. The strength of Intervention Central is that it provides step-by-step instructions to implement various interventions, but the downside is that not all that you will find on this site has been rigorously researched.  I encourage my own students to excercise caution when using this resource and expect that they search for peer-reviewed articles supporting the interventions on Intervention Central using NREPP or the WWC (links above).

 

One particularly helpful part of the website is an overview of CBM, including probe generators and norms.

The Center for Mental Health in Schools is a part of the School Mental Health Project at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Several of the "research briefs" on this page may be useful, but mostly this site serves as a clearinghouse for resources on the Internet. In other words, people are meant to start here when looking for useful resources elsewhere.

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